مرکز آموزش زبان انگلیسی
مرکز آموزش زبان انگلیسی

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۱- سخنرانی آرتور اسکارگل Arthur Scargill: ' Criticism of Tory Policies'

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We are indeed facing a deliberate political attack by Britain's ruling class. A war of attrition is being waged as capitalism, in a condition of acute crisis, lashes out with increasing ferocity to protect itself. The existence of this crisis is now clear for all to see. It has been exposed by the recent collapse of stock markets throughout the capitalist world, triggered off by the slide on Wall Street (which according to experts is the worst slump since 1929). This collapse will in my view lead inevitably to more hardship for the British people, with a massive increase in unemployment and reduced living standards as capitalism seeks once again to make working people pay for its pursuit of profit and power. The Tories have based their savage policies on an ideology called monetarism - it is this philosophy which has led to the virtual destruction of our manufacturing industries and in particular to the devastation of our coal, rail and steel industries.

The steel industry has lost over 150,000 jobs, and the coal and rail industries have lost approximately 100,000 each within a period of eight years. Parts of our nation such as South Wales have been reduced to a lunar landscape as the Tories have systematically butchered our manufacturing and industrial infrastructure... In seeking to win that absolute control which it must have for even limited survival, the State through the Tory Government has introduced twin measures to destroy or render ineffective all those who oppose it.

On the one hand, it has deliberately increased unemployment from just over one million to four and a half million in eight years creating as in the 1930s a situation where thirty to forty people pursue each job vacancy, driven by this emotional blackmail to increasing fear. At the same time it has introduced vicious legal measures designed to render the British trade-union movement completely ineffective. Indeed Margaret Thatcher has made it absolutely clear that she wants to wipe socialism off the agenda of British politics; to achieve this aim the Tories are determined also to wipe effective trade unionism off the industrial agenda. Since 1979, we have seen a whole range of anti-trade-union legislation - all of it designed to dismantle the gains achieved by trade unionists in more than a century of struggle.

Today, the extent of this legislation is such that Britain's trade-union movement must now be regarded as one of the most oppressed in the world! Tory legislation has removed trade-union immunity, made secondary action including secondary picketing and mass picketing illegal, and rendered all trade unions vulnerable to legal actions which could result in their bankruptcy. Britain's trade unions have found themselves no longer free to determine their own policies in relation to industrial solidarity action.

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نگرانی هایی درباره وضعیت ظاهری جسم  Worries About Physical Appearance

 

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Worries About Physical Appearance

Most people would like to have an attractive physical appearance, but some people

become very worried about the way they look. This can sometimes lead them to do

things that are unhealthy.

For example, many women believe that they must be very thin in order to be attractive.

They see pictures of fashion models who are very thin and then believe that an attractive

woman must look the same way. However, many men prefer the appearance of women

who are not so thin.

In order to become thin, some women try to reduce the amount of food that they eat.

When this is taken to an extreme, a woman might eat far too little food to remain healthy.

Her weight may become dangerously low, as she tries to become thinner and thinner.

This condition is called "anorexia," and it affects many thousands of women in Western

countries.

Anorexia is one of several conditions known as eating disorders. Another eating disorder

is called "bulimia." A woman who has bulimia will sometimes eat large amounts of food,

but then will try to eliminate the food, by vomiting. This is intended to prevent any weight

gain, but it is also a very unhealthy behavior.

Unfortunately, some women are concerned about being very thin, but some women have

different concerns related to the appearance of their body. For example, some women

believe that their breasts are not large enough, and undergo surgery to enlarge their

breasts. In this surgery, some artificial substance is implanted inside the breast to make

it larger. Many women have had this surgery, but many of them have suffered serious

health problems as a result.

In recent years, many men have also become very concerned about their physical

appearance. For example, some men believe that they must become very muscular in

order to have an attractive appearance. To achieve this appearance, some men use drugs

called steroids, which make it possible to gain large amounts of muscle. However,

steroids can have very unhealthy side effects. In addition to drugs, some men have used

surgery to change their physical appearance. For example, some men have had implants

to make their arms, legs, or chest appear larger.

It is unfortunate that so many people feel so unhappy about their physical appearance

and that they do unhealthy things to change the way they look. Of course, everyone

should try to be healthy, but people must also learn to accept their physical appearance.

Many different body types can be attractive, and there is no single ideal body type. There

is no need to use unnatural methods of changing one's body.

 

 


anorexia:


a mental illness that makes someone stop eating

_________________

disorder:
lack of order; confusion; DISARRAY: The house was in a state of complete disorder because of the young children.

 

_________________

bulimia:

an illness in which a person cannot stop themselves from eating too much, and then vomits in order to control their weight

 

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eliminate:

to completely get rid of something that is unnecessary or unwanted
eliminate a need/possibility/risk/problem etc

The credit card eliminates the need for cash or cheques.

The teacher should try to eliminate the possibility that the child has a hearing defect.
eliminate something/somebody from something
Fatty foods should be eliminated from the diet.

 

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undergo:


to experience (esp. something unpleasant, unwelcome, or difficult): She’s undergoing treatment at the hospital. | The company has undergone some major changes in the last five years.

 

Another Source

if you undergo a change, an unpleasant experience etc, it happens to you or is done to you
The country has undergone massive changes recently. He has been released from prison to undergo medical treatment in the United States. She has been undergoing tests since Monday. Teachers should be expected to undergo mid-career training and development.

 

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implant:

to put something into someone's body by performing a medical operation
Surgeons successfully implanted an artificial hip.

 

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steroid:

a chemical that the body produces naturally or that can be made as a drug to treat illness and injuries. Steroids are sometimes used illegally by people doing sports to improve their performance
on steroids
a bodybuilder on steroids

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