زبان انگلیسی و مکالمه را با شنیدن یاد بگیرید - سطح سه

چاپفرستادن به ایمیل درس یک - لویی پاستور
louis-pasteur

لویی پاستور

 

Louis Pasteur was one of the greatest scientists of all time. Pasteur made very important discoveries in biology and chemistry, and the techniques he developed helped greatly to develop medical science and the agricultural and food industries.
Pasteur was born in a small town in France during the year 1822. When he was a young
man, Pasteur studied science at a university in the city of Paris. He soon did some
excellent work in chemistry, and later began his famous study of germs.
Pasteur was one of the first scientists to understand that many diseases could be caused
by extremely small, invisible organisms. Only a few other scientists had believed this
before Pasteur. He advised doctors to wash their hands thoroughly before treating
patients.  
Pasteur also demonstrated that life forms did not arise spontaneously. His research
confirmed the idea, developed by previous scientists, that a living organism would not
appear unless other individuals of its kind were present.  
One of Pasteur's most important contributions was a technique that has been named
after him: pasteurization. Pasteurization kills the germs that are found in drinks such as
milk or beer. Because of Pasteur's technique, people are no longer infected with
diseases by drinking these liquids.  
Just as important as pasteurization was a technique called immunization. Pasteur found
that a person or animal could be made safe, or immune, from a disease, by injecting the
person with some weakened germs that cause the disease. The body can resist the
disease after being immunized in this way. Today, many diseases are prevented by the
use of this technique.  
Pasteur's discoveries also helped to save people who had already been infected with
diseases. One such disease is rabies. Rabies is a disease that sometimes occurs in
animals. This disease usually kills the animal, but before dying, the animal becomes very
aggressive, and may spread the disease by biting a person or another animal.  
One day, the parents of a young boy came to Pasteur. Their son had been bitten by a dog
that had the rabies disease. The parents knew that their son would die from the disease,
unless something could be done to save him. Pasteur agreed to help the boy, and the
immunization technique saved the boy's life.  
Pasteur died in 1895. He was greatly admired around the world for his achievements,
which have helped all of humankind. Today, Pasteur is considered to be the greatest
figure in the history of medicine.
  درس دو - روانشناسی

 

Psychology

Psychology

 

 

 

 

 

با فشار دادن این متن  فایل صوتی درس دو سطح 3زبان انگلیسی و مکالمه را با شنیدن یاد بگیرید - روانشناسی را دانلود نمایید

 


Are you interested in the behaviour of people and animals? If you are, then you might
enjoy the study of psychology. Psychology is the study of behaviour, but this is a very
large area of study. There are several different branches of psychology, each of which
studies a different aspect of behaviour.  
Social psychologists study interactions among people. For example, a social
psychologist might try to learn about the situations that cause people to behave
aggressively. Another question studied by social psychologists is why certain people
become attracted to each other. One of the interesting problems in social psychology is
conformity: what causes people to behave in the same way, and to follow what others do
and say?
Cognitive psychologists study thinking, memory, and language. One problem studied by
cognitive psychologists is how people remember numbers. For example, what is the best
way to memorize some numbers? Is it better to repeat the numbers to oneself, or to try to
attach some meaning to these numbers? A cognitive psychologist might also study
language. For example, why can young children learn a second language so quickly and
easily? Cognitive psychologists are also interested in the ways that people learn to solve
problems, such as finding a new place.  
Clinical psychologists study mental illnesses. For example, a clinical psychologist might
try to find out the causes of depression and to figure out ways of helping people who are
depressed. Other clinical psychologists might study the behaviour of people who suffer
from addiction to drugs, so that this problem can be prevented and treated. Another topic
of interest to clinical psychologists is violent behaviour. It is very important to find ways
of preventing violence and to change the behaviour of personswho act violently.  
Some psychologists are interested in the measurement of psychological characteristics.
For example, psychologists might develop tests to assess a person's intelligence,
personality traits, or interests. These tests can be used to help people make decisions
about education, occupation, and clinical treatment.  
Psychologists who study the behaviour of animals are called ethologists. Ethologists
often go into wilderness areas to watch the activity of birds, fish, or other animals. These
psychologists try to figure out why it is that some animals have "instincts" for various
behaviours such as parenting, mating, or fighting. Some ethologists have learned very
much about the unusual behaviours observed in many animals.  
These are only a few of the many areas of psychology. Truly, psychology is one of the
most interesting areas of knowledge!

 
 
 
 
چاپفرستادن به ایمیل درس 3 - فساد اخلاقی
Corruption
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When an official of a government or business is acting dishonestly, we say that this
person is corrupt. Corruption is a serious problem in many countries around the world.
There are several different kinds of corrupt practices, including bribes, kickbacks,
nepotism, and embezzlement.  
A bribe is a payment of money or some other benefit, in exchange for a decision that
would not otherwise be made. For example, an accused criminal might bribe a judge so
that the judge would make a decision of "not guilty." Another example is that a business
owner might bribe a government official so that the official would allow the construction
of very unsafe buildings.  
A kickback is similar to a bribe, except that the official receives some part of the money
in a dishonest business deal. For example, governments sometimes decide which
company should build a road. A company might offer money to the government official
who makes the decision, so that this company will be chosen, even if it is not the best
company for the job.  
Nepotism happens when an official unfairly gives advantages to his or her relatives. For
example, a government official might hire a brother or sister to do a job even though
other people would be much better qualified for the job. Of course, all of us want to help
our relatives, but it is wrong to do this at the expense of the public.  
Embezzlement happens when an official secretly steals some money from a company or
government. For example, a manager at a company might secretly move some of the
company's money to his or her own bank account, or that manager might lie about his or
her expenses in order to receive more payment from the company.  
Corruption has very bad effects on people, in several ways. Sometimes it can lead to
very dangerous situations. One example of this is when unsafe construction projects are
approved by officials who have been bribed. Another example is when criminals are
freed as a result of bribes. Also, a country's economy can be damaged by corruption. For
example, if companies must pay bribes in order to do business, then they may decide to
leave the country. Also, if people's tax money is stolen by corrupt officials, this makes
the people poorer. In addition, when company officials are corrupt, it makes the company
less able to compete with other companies.  
How can corruption be stopped? An important step is for each person to decide not to
act in ways that are corrupt. People must agree to take this problem seriously. Also, each
company and each government must have strict rules about corruption. It must be very
clear to all employees-from the lowest to the highest-that corruption is totally
unacceptable.
 
 
 
 
چاپفرستادن به ایمیل درس 4 - کانادا : استان ها

 

Canada : Provinces and Territories

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Canada is one of the largest countries in the world. It is located in the northern half of the continent of North America, above the United States. Canada is divided into ten provinces and three territories, each of which is different from the others.  


The province of British Columbia is located at the far western end of Canada. British Columbia stretches from the Pacific Ocean, at the west, to the Rocky Mountains, at the east. British Columbia contains the city of Vancouver, where two million people live. Most of the land of British Columbia is very mountainous, with vast forests covering the mountains. In British Columbia, forestry is an important industry, providing wood for people around the world.  

 

Moving east from British Columbia, the next provinces are Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. These are known as the prairie provinces, because they are mostly made of flat, grassy land called "prairie." Alberta is the province where the flat prairie meets the tall and beautiful Rocky Mountains. In Alberta, there are many fields where oil and gas are found, and there are also many farms where cattle are raised.

 

Saskatchewan is the Canadian province that grows the most wheat. Wheat from Saskatchewan is sent around the world to make bread and pasta for many people. Manitoba is the other prairie province. Its largest city, Winnipeg, is about halfway between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Winnipeg has the coldest winters of any large city in the world, with temperatures sometimes reaching -40 degrees Celsius!  


Moving east, the next province is Ontario. The land in the northern part of Ontario is very rocky and contains many thousands and thousands of lakes. Many mines are found in northern Ontario. In the southern part of Ontario, there is good farmland, and there are also many cities where factories produce cars and steel. Ontario contains Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as the capital city of Canada--Ottawa. In the southern part of Ontario are four of the largest lakes in the world, known as the Great Lakes.  


Next to Ontario is the province of Quebec. Unlike the other provinces, where most people speak English, most of the people in Quebec speak French. The capital of Quebec is called Quebec City, and this is one of the oldest cities in North America. Quebec City contains many buildings that are hundreds of years old. Also in the province of Quebec is the city of Montreal. Of all the French-speaking cities in the world, only Paris is larger than Montreal!  

 

In the eastern part of Canada are the Atlantic provinces, which are next to the Atlantic Ocean. These provinces are New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland. In the Atlantic provinces, fishing is an important industry. Tourism is also important as many people come to see the beauty of these provinces. The people in these provinces are said to be the friendliest in Canada.  


In the far north of Canada are the three territories that lie beside the Arctic Ocean: Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Many of the people in these territories are the Native people of Canada, known as the Indians and the Inuit. The northern areas have very cold, dark winters. The summer is short, but the days are very long and bright.

 

درس 5 - دو هنر مند بزرگ: لئوناردو و میکل‌آنژ

 

Two Great Artists : Leonardo and Michelangelo
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Many people admire the paintings and sculptures that artists create. Some very beautiful paintings and sculptures were created by two men who lived in the same country at the same time. These men were Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. They both lived in Italy around the year 1500.  

 

Leonardo da Vinci is most famous for his painting called the Mona Lisa. This is perhaps the best-known painting in the world. The Mona Lisa shows the head and shoulders of a dark-haired woman. When people look at this painting, they are often captivated by her smile and by her eyes, which have a look of mystery.  

Another painting of Leonardo's is called The Last Supper. This painting shows a famous scene from the Christian religion. In this painting, Jesus Christ is seated at the middle of a long table, with his followers (the disciples) seated around him. Many of the paintings that were created at this time have a religious theme.  

Leonardo was not only an artist; he was also interested in engineering. He actually worked for some time as an advisor to a military leader, helping him to develop new machines for use in war. Leonardo also made rough drawings of machines that are similar to those that were invented much later, such as submarines and helicopters. Obviously, Leonardo was an extremely creative man.

 

Michelangelo was about 23 years younger than Leonardo. In addition to being a painter, Michelangelo was also a sculptor, and many experts consider him the greatest sculptor of all time. One of his most famous sculptures is David, which is a statue of a young man who was a famous figure in the Bible. Another great sculpture of Michelangelo's is called the Pieta. The Pieta shows Mary, the mother of Jesus, holding the body of her son across her lap.  

Michelangelo is also famous for painting the ceiling of a church known as the Sistine Chapel. The leader of the Roman Catholic Church, Pope Julius, asked Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of this new church. This project required many years of hard work, and the Pope complained that it took too long. However, when the work was finished, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel was covered with beautiful paintings of many scenes from the Bible.

Fortunately, many of the works of Leonardo and of Michelangelo can still be seen today in the art galleries of Europe. During the past 500 years, the color of the paintings had faded somewhat, but in recent years, some work has been done to restore the paintings to their original appearance.

 

درس 6 - وایکینگ
The Viking
viking
 

 

About a thousand years ago, people known as the Vikings were known and feared
throughout Europe. The Vikings were the people of the northern part of Europe, called
Scandinavia, which includes the modern countries of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.
The Vikings made their living by farming and fishing. However, by about the year 700,
they began making attacks, or raids, upon towns along the coasts of Europe in order to
steal the wealth of those towns.  
The Vikings made their attacks very quickly and without any warning. They were very
cruel to the people of the towns they attacked, and they sometimes destroyed the towns
by burning down the buildings. In some parts of Europe, the local kings would often fight
against the Vikings. Sometimes, however, the kings would pay the Vikings in order to
persuade them not to attack.  
Although the Vikings were known as fierce warriors, they also built excellent ships. The
wooden Viking ships, called longboats, were able to sail even in very bad weather. Many
Viking longboats were about 20 metres long, but some were nearly 90 metres long. The
Viking sailors used both sails and oars to move their ships.  
The Vikings travelled across a large area. They made many of their attacks in Britain,
France, and Germany, but sometimes sailed south, into the Mediterranean Sea. Other
Vikings moved to the east, and then south along the rivers of Russia. Some even went as
far as the area that is now the country of Turkey. In some places, the Vikings decided to
stay. Many Vikings settled in England and in France, and eventually they mixed with the
local people. Other Vikings settled in Russia and also mixed with the people there.  
The most famous travels of the Vikings were in the Atlantic Ocean. Vikings sailed
westward to the island of Iceland where many of them stayed. Today, the people of
Iceland are descended from the Vikings. Some Vikings sailed farther west to the cold
island of Greenland. Vikings lived in Greenland for several generations, but eventually
they died out. Some Vikings had gone even further west and reached the Canadian island
of Newfoundland. The Vikings only stayed for a few years, but they had reached North
America about 500 years before Christopher Columbus!  
Gradually, the Vikings became converted to the Christian religion. They also stopped
raiding the towns of Europe, and instead of fighting, they began trading with their
neighbors. Today, the Scandinavian countries are known as very peace-loving nations.

 

درس 7 - ویلیام شکسپیر

 

William Shakespeare
ویلیام شکسپیر،هملت

 

There have been many great writers in the history of English literature, but there is no
doubt about which writer was the greatest. Many people consider William Shakespeare to
have been the best writer who ever lived.  
William Shakespeare was born in the town of Stratford, England, in the year 1564. When
he was a young man, Shakespeare moved to the city of London, where he began writing
plays. His plays were soon very successful, and were enjoyed both by the common
people of London and also by the rich and famous. In addition to his plays, Shakespeare
wrote many short poems and a few longer poems. Like his plays, these poems are still
famous today.  
Shakespeare's most famous plays include Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, Hamlet, King Lear,
Othello, and Julius Caesar. Usually, Shakespeare did not invent the stories that he told in
his plays. Instead, he wrote his plays using stories that already existed. However,
Shakespeare's plays told these stories in a more interesting way than ever before. Some
of the stories were tragedies, some were comedies, and some described historical
events.  
In his plays, Shakespeare revealed a very wide knowledge of many areas of life. The
characters in his plays discuss many different topics, often with the knowledge of
experts. But what is even more impressive about these plays is Shakespeare's use of the
English language. His vocabulary was very large, and Shakespeare seems to have
introduced many words to the language! Also, many of the phrases that are said by
Shakespeare's characters are now used in everyday conversation. Today, writers often
use quotations from Shakespeare's plays in their own works.  
But perhaps even the most impressive features of Shakespeare's plays are the
characters within them. The many characters in his plays seem very different from each
other, but they seem very realistic. The emotions they feel, the words they say, and the
actions they perform are all easily understood. Many people who watch one of
Shakespeare's plays will find that they know people who remind them somewhat of the
characters in those plays.  
Shakespeare died in the year 1619, but his writings are still popular today, 400 years after
they were written. The poems and plays are greatly admired by experts in literature, but
also by people in general. Each year, hundreds of thousands of people enjoy attending
performances of Shakespeare's plays. No other writer in the English language has
remained so popular for such a long time.

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